Internal Combustion

Internal Combustion Engines are basically any device which uses the explosive combustion of fuel to push a piston within a cylinder. Examples of internal combustion fuels include:

  1. Petrol/Gasoline
  2. Diesel
  3. Kerosene
  4. Aviation Gas (AVGAS)

In this section of Steam & Engine you will find both details on the processes and engines, but examples of the usage of those engines.

Internal Combustion Engines are basically any device which uses the explosive combustion of fuel to push a piston within a cylinder. Examples of internal combustion fuels include:

  1. Petrol/Gasoline
  2. Diesel
  3. Kerosene
  4. Aviation Gas (AVGAS)

In this section of Steam & Engine you will find both details on the processes and engines, but examples of the usage of those engines.

Remember to also check the Registrars page (menu item at left) and the Manual Exchange (menu item at left) for more information. If you have an engine it can be to your advantage to register it with a registrar in order to find other people who also have your engine type/style/brand. It can also help out if your engine is ever stolen.

The 4 Stroke Diesel Engine - Simply Explained

This series shows a cut-away diagrams of a Four-Stroke Diesel engine. This engine design is more complex mechanically of two and four stroke as it requires synchronisation of moving parts. The description "four stroke" comes from the fact that the engine fires (burns fuel) on every second upward stroke (travel of the piston from bottom of the cylinder to the top), thus there are four strokes for every ignition of fuel, two upward and two downward. The first stroke moves from top to bottom, where air is drawn in, the first upward stroke compresses the air and fuel is sprayed in, the air and fuel ignite and begin the third stroke where the piston is forced back downwards by the explosive force of the fuel igniting. On the fourth stroke the piston moves upwards again forcing the spent exhaust gasses out of the cylinder.…

Read more: The 4 Stroke Diesel Engine - Simply Explained

The 4 Stroke Petrol Engine - Simply Explained

This series shows a cut-away diagrams of a Four-Stroke Petrol engine. This engine design is more complex mechanically of two and four stroke as it requires synchronisation of moving parts. The description "four stroke" comes from the fact that the engine fires (burns fuel) on every second upward stroke (travel of the piston from bottom of the cylinder to the top), thus there are four strokes for every ignition of fuel, two upward and two downward. The first stroke moves from top to bottom, where air is drawn in, the first upward stroke compresses the air and fuel is sprayed in, the air and fuel ignite and begin the third stroke where the piston is forced back downwards by the explosive force of the fuel igniting. On the fourth stroke the piston moves upwards again forcing the spent exhaust gasses out of the cylinder.…

Read more: The 4 Stroke Petrol Engine - Simply Explained

Read more: The parts of an engine

When working your engine driving some machinery with a flat belt you may run into slip problems. Firstly check that your tension is ok (see seperate article) then if you still have a problem you might consider one of the following weird and wonderful suggestions from the SEL for belt dressing...…

Read more: (Anti Slip) Belt Dressing

Many of our old engines use copper gaskets, particularly when you have a removable cylinder (eg. Lister diesels and petrol engines, Southern Cross Engines, and many others). The copper gaskets are used as both shims and seals to between the crank case and the cylinder. Some engines used copper for head gaskets (I have a Rosebery 3C vertical which has a copper head gasket). The copper gaskets can be reused but need to be softened (or annealed) first. The question came up on the SEL and had the following helpful responses...

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. asked:
Hi gang,
What's the best way to make old copper (sheet) soft again?
We made a copper gasket ring for our Wichterle from an old sheet but want to
make it softer.


Harry Terpstra
Sint Anna Parochie
Netherlands
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it."><This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. responded:
I've been told to heat it and quench it..opposite of steel...called
annealing I think. If once isn't enought do it again.
Rick
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. added:
In annealing of copper, the heating is the important part. The rate of
cooling is immaterial.

Whether you allow it to cool naturally or drop it into water makes no
difference to the final softness.
.
Traditionally, we drop it into water because that's what we were told, but
it is not necessary. It's only a matter of convenience

Try it both ways and see for yourself.

JW²
Perth W.A. Oz
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.">This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. added similar:
    Heat it to a dull red and quench it.

Bob Willman
The Eagle's Anvil
Bowling Green, Ohio
WB8NQW

And same from This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.:
Anneal it by heating to cherry red and dumping it in a bucket of cold water.

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. added some very handy advice:

Drop it 'edge-on' into cold water, otherwise you'll get covered in scalding
water...
Peter

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. agreed with the others...
To anneal any non-ferrous metal you heat it up and plunge it into water

Clarke L. McGee

A:

In annealing of copper, the heating is the important part. The rate of
cooling is immaterial.

Whether you allow it to cool naturally or drop it into water makes no
difference to the final softness.
.
Traditionally, we drop it into water because that's what we were told, but
it is not necessary.  It's only a matter of convenience

Try it both ways and see for yourself.

JW²
Perth W.A. Oz
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

A:

Good on ya Jack .I was wondering when sombody would say that.You only cool
it so you can handle it.
EDD PAYNE
PO BOX 364 GULGONG
New South Wales  AUSTRALIA
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Read more: Annealing (Softening) Copper