Miscellaneous

Annealing and Bending Copper Tubing
Copper tubing is used throughout both steam and internal combustion engines. It is used because it can be made malleable at temperatures where it can still be worked by gloved hands but remains strong after the operation.

Annealing


Before bending copper tube it should be annealed using a heat source such as a blowtorch or Bunsen burner. The blue flame should be played evenly and slowly over the length of the tube, stopping just before the tube becomes red hot.

Bending


Before bending the pipe it should be filled with fine grain dry sand to prevent compression of the tube. With very small bore tube, the tube should be wrapped in wire before bending instead of using sand. In most cases the tube can be bent by hand with satisfactory results, but if you need a neater appearance you should use a jig. For example, it is common to put a spiral into fuel pipes to hold more fuel in the same space after the check valve. To make the spiral obtain a 1" dowel and wrap the tube around the dowel several times in layers.…

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Flat Belt Repair
At the 1999 Upper Yarra Valley Draught Horse and Olde Time Festival I broke a belt on my Rosebery 2HP Drag Saw. Thinking I would have to shut down for the day since I did not have any combs or laces with me I went to talk to my new friend Alan Shepard about it. I found Alan shortly after buying my Rosebery drag saw and spent hours discussing saws and Rosebery in particular on the phone. He and I agreed to meet up at the show so he could mentor me in safe saw operation.

Alan is a part gentleman, part teacher, and the rest showman. He helped me to learn how to safely run my saw and at the same time entertained the crowd (you don't see engines cutting wood much at shows, so when it does happen you really gather the folks).…

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During my project work in 2001 we had to make a specialist fitting to be used in mounting our equipment on Breda Light Rail Vehicles (trams) at San Francisco Municipal Railway (SF MUNI). I chose Bentech (The Philadelphia Pipe Bending Company) as the primary supplier, and they in turn used their long term partner Dent Casting / Forging as the principal manufacturer. I visited Dent to oversee the first production run to ensure the item measured up to our needs before we made thousands of them. I won't document the design stage in this page except to say that we used an existing similar unit to build a CAD model which was used in a CNC machine to make the reversible mould. To reduce casting costs we (and Bentech) elected to fund the extra cost of a multi unit mould which turns out twenty half units with each casting. We made the parts out of AluMag35 which is ideal for this sort of work in that it is readilly machinable but tough enough for public transportation use.
The mould is a plate of steel machined in a CNC milling machine. The plate is placed between the two halves of a casting box and the box is filled with green sand. Green sand is a refined sand which includes particular trace elements that lend themselves to makeing a good mould which fills and parts easilly. The sand is kept in a tower which keeps it at a particular temperature and is completely dry to the touch. The sand is carried by sealed conveyor to each work station where it is held in a temporary hopper and dispensed as needed into moulds.

After the mould is full it is pressed. After pressing the mould box is removed leaving only the sand itself to hold the shape. I cannot begin to explain how the dry sand holds together.
After pressing the edges of the sand around the mould are clean and sharp. In this image, the casting box has been removed and the mould has been removed from the sand. You can see the detail left behind in the sand for the metal to flow into. Note that the deep lines are the sprue lines which carry the metal to each part to be cast. Two of these halves are put together then sent to the casting floor to make a complete mould.
On the pouring floor a ceramic crucible is dipped into the furnace where it fills with molten metal. The crucible is brought to the slag table and handed to a pourer. The slag is removed from the top of the metal and the pourer begins pouring into the moulds.


The pourer quickly gets into position and pours each mould quickly and evenly until metal appears in the vent holes. Each mould is poured in about 4 to 5 seconds. The pourer moves on until his crucible does not hold enough metal for another mould. He pours around 12 to 14 moulds each round.
The raw article is removed from the moulds, cooled and cut from the sprues.

Out of each mould comes the raw castings, the green sand provides a clean smooth finish only requiring a light polishing before heading off to the machining room to have the bores cut and the bolt holes drilled.

After machining the article is complete and ready for use.



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This page is devoted to BOLTS AND SCREWS! Illustrations and names of some of the more common Bolts & Screws found on old engines are listed. The idea of this page is to make finding replacements over the phone/e-mail/whatever easier as you and the supplier should be talking the same language.…

Read more: Get Screwed... Bolt and Screw Types

Horsepower and how to measure it
One of the terms which crops up all the time during discussions about machinery is Horse Power. Horse Power is the term we use to compare the work a machine can do in a certain period of time compared to the work a horse can do in the same time. This is of course very simplistic, and technically the term horsepower is the accomplishment of 33,000 ft. lbs. of work in one minute. For example, if you lift 33,000 lbs. of weight from ground level to one foot about ground level in one minute you have achieved the work of one horse. Of course it could be 3,300 lbs. lifted through 10 feet in one minute and so on. To put it metric terms 1 HP is to lift 1100 kg 33 centimetres in one minute.

HP can also be expressed in terms of Watts, there are 746 watts to one HP.…

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